how do I covert bitcoins into standard currency to be able to buy things where bitcoins are not used or accepted? No one seems to answer this basic question in anything I have seen.
Well, you sell the Bitcoin for standard currency. There are many ways to do this: lots of different exchange, peer-to-peer exchanges which allow you to sell directly to people, Bitcoin ATMs, private deals among friends and acquaintances, and so on.
It’s just a case of finding a willing buyer, really. There are many of those these days, so believe me, selling Bitcoin isn’t a problem in almost all countries. If you’re somewhere very rural without internet access then you might struggle but otherwise it’s not a problem.